King Willem-Alexander and Queen Maxima presided over the ceremony at the RAI Exhibition and Convention Center in Amsterdam.
Photos of the dead were projected on multiple screens as 298 candles were lit, one for each of the victims.
The Netherlands Philharmonic Orchestra, the National Radio Choir and the Holland Boys Choir performed.
MH17 was shot down July 17 while flying over eastern Ukraine en route from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Western nations blame ethnic Russian rebels battling the government in Kiev. The insurgents, however, denied responsibility.